Non-Invasive Glucometer (NGM)

Written by: Edward Diego (Communications)

Approved by: Monica Cabingatan (Project Manager)

 

Frequent and accurate blood glucose measurements are essential to managing diabetes.  For our sensor suite, traditional glucometers cannot allow the full potential of the wireless body area network because they require the user to draw blood and wait for the results on a test strip and meter.  According to the journal Diabetes Care by the American Heart Association; home monitoring via ‘finger-pricking’ is accurate at 6-7% but at the risk of discomfort, infection, nerve damage, and lack of control[1].  And those risk were evaluated in adults which makes an invasive option for children non-compliant for play.

Noninvasive glucometers(NGM) are a new series of glucometers that have recently  experienced a rapid increase in attention and innovation , much due to the global epidemic of diabetes[2].  Their advantages are the removal of repeated blood drawing people with diabetes must conduct (~ 4 a day)[2].  There most common drawbacks experienced are the fact that most products still require the user to ‘stop’ and take a measurement, their higher inaccuracy, and their vulnerability to perspiration.

 

Company Device Body Placement Technology Characteristics
ProsMeets FDA standardsCan measure temperature and perspirationAlarm system
Animas Technologies GlucoWatch G2 Wrist skin Reverse Iontrophoresis ConsRequires 2-3h warm up periodFrequent CalibrationSubject must be dry and stillIrritated SkinOnly detects high glucose levels

Cannot detect Hypoglycemia

ProsCE ApprovedLong Lasting BatteryAlerts for rapid changeCan detect hypoglycemiaAdapts to temperature
Biovotion AG Pendra Wrist Skin Bioempedance Spectroscopy ConsMultiple Clibrations1h Placement CalibrationPlacement inflexibleOnly 35% correlationPatient Must wait 1h
ProsHigh AccuracyAlerts for glycemia(both)Data StoragePatient can moveLight wieght

LCD Screen

High correlation

Intefrity Applications GlucoTrack Earlobe skin Ultrasound, Electromagnetic, Heat capacity ConsCalibration Needs Invasive ReferenceData processing needs improvment
ProsCE ApprovedMeasures in less than minuteStorageAlertsWireless

Easy and infrequent calibration

Continuous measuring 24h

Accurate with high correlation

OrSense Ltd. OrSense NBM-200G Fingertip Skin Occlusion NIR Spectroscopy Cons
ProsHigh CorrelationWireless
SpectRx NaN Skin(Anywhere) Laser Microporation ConsNeeds good meter for calibrationmeasurements lag 2-4min
ProsQuick Warm-upMeaures every minuteWirelessAlertsNo skin irritation

High accuracy/correlation

Echo Therapeutics Inc. Symphony Skin(Anywhere) Prelude SkinPrep System Cons

Table 1.  Each sensor is hyperlinked

This is a table that summarizes the NGM evaluations done by Sandeep Kumar Vashist in his review of NGMs for the Analytica Chimica Acta Journal[1].  Most of these sensors are available for purchase by their respective companies while some of them are in their prototype stage as of 2012.

Glucowise is a new innovation that utilizes radio waves to measure blood glucose from the skin.  This sensor boast surpassing ISO15197:2003[4], a standard for glucometer accuracy set by the International Standardization Organization.  The product was developed by Mediwise, a company specialized in producing wireless medical sensors.

Mediwise has stated that they are still prototyping the product[1], which means it may come in different forms; wrist band, finger clip, band.  These are possibilities that fit their stated feature that the sensors can be used during athletic activities, that require minimal physical interference [3], and adaptation to increased moisture as many past  NGMs have had difficulty maintaining performance with[4].

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Figure 1.http://www.gluco-wise.com/

Figure 1 is the product and how it is used.  It can also connect with a phone via Bluetooth 4.0 or USB[3].  This allows for continuous recording during almost any activity. Its small form factor, low power design, and award winning accuracy[4]. make it the most attractive option for a blood glucose sensor.  With this children do not have to stop and draw blood to measure their blood sugar.

 

 

References

[1]Klonoff, David,. Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring,. FDA Food and Drug Administration,. Diabetes Care Vol. 20 No.3 1997

[2]Vashist, Sandeep,. Non-Invasive glucose monitoring technology in diabetes managemen: A review,. Elseviewr. Analytica Chimica Acta vol 750 pp 16-27,. 2012

[3]Glucowise-http://www.gluco-wise.com/

[4] Bastos, Frederico,. Fivelman, Quintin,. Palikaras, George,. Kallos, Themos,. Glucowise Non-invasive &Continuous Glucose Monitoring,. Building Global Innovators, COnnecting Innovators and Investors,. http://mitportugal-eie.org